Threats of Reliability and Validity
Validity is a measure that determines if a study design is appropriate, and whether it is suitable to generalize a population of interest. On the contrary, reliability ensures that a research technique will yield the same results after it is repeated. Since criminology is based on verification of hypotheses, operationalizing studies the variables of impact on reliability to ensure consistency and soundness of criminological investigations.
The process of examining variables of the validity impact in criminological research, is required by investigator in order to identify changeable factors that will deliver truthful findings. For instance, a correlation becomes valid if the change in one variable causes alteration on the other. One more example: an investigator can consider whether the tougher gun policies can reduce crime rate in the United States. The statistical relationship between the alternating quantities is that crime could be reduced substantially if fewer individuals had access to weapons. Researchers use four main examination approaches to establish the aptness of the technique (Validity of research, 2000). Firstly, the face validity uses a reader’s judgment to arrive at a decision. Secondly, criterion-associated soundness appraises the relationship between the subject and an external principle. Thirdly, the construct validity explores whether a measure for certain concepts matches. Finally, content validity assesses the entirety chosen method that covers the operationalization concept. If a pollster implements the illogical variables, the findings will be false (Duffee, McDowall, Mazerolle, & Mastrofski, 2000).
On the contrary, execution of dependable variables in criminology study is crucial for a replica of the steps as it gives a constant outcome. For example, a study that is based on trusty variables will produce the same results repeatedly. On the contrary, erratic options give contradictory result (Validity of research, 2000).
As such, the subject of operationalizing variables influence validity because if they are inconsistent, they would give a wrong outcome, which could make an innocent person suffer from wrongful imprisonment. On the same note, reliable variables make the findings constant. For instance, a suspect that a District Court finds guilty of a murder gets the same punishment at the High Court.

Duffee, D., McDowall, D., Mazerolle, L. G., and Mastrofski, S. T. (2000). Introduction to volume 4: Measurement and analysis of crime and justice: An introductory essay. Criminal Justice, 4. Retrieved from:
Validity of research. (2000). Retrieved from