Week 2 Psy 605

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Institution

 

Discussion I

People faced with life-threatening illness are emotionally vulnerable to suicidal thoughts. Family members get a harrowing experience watching a loved one suffer over a long period. Henderson & Barry (2014) notes that often it is relatives and friends who are more depressed than the patient and may unconsciously reinforce negative thoughts. Palliative care that entails compassionate therapy is integral to the patient’s pain management in addition to providing comfort to patients nearing the end of their life.

Anticipatory guidance and counseling of the patient helps reduce anxiety and depression (Isaac & Knickman, 2013). In the two scenarios, the recommended course of action is counseling Roger and Geri to accept the situation. Roger should be assisted in writing his will that should be shown to him for approval. Geri should be counseled to accept the reality and get the courage to discuss the situation with her son Gabe. Their study further notes that 63 percent of old Americans prefer to die in hospitals and a further 17 percent in long-term care facilities.

Developmental contextualism theory explains that the nature nurture concept is integrated and reciprocally interactive in life. Based on this theory, I will elaborate the concept of death to Roger, Geri and family members that it is natural that life must end at some point and recommend family members and relatives to give emotional support to the patient. The psychological state of the patient and the cognitive ability will guide the manner in presenting the recommendations. Comprehending the situation will enable the patient get an insight of the problem. People find it difficult to talk about the end of their life to their lovely ones especially their children. As a social worker, I will present my recommendations to the family members to accept the situation by guiding them and discussing the concept of death and how to move on to help lessen grief and future aggressive behaviors. Considerations of ending the lives of the patients by use of machines cannot be processed at this time because of lack of information on the scenarios. The ethical principle of respecting people’s rights and dignity will be the basis of the guidance in Roger’s situation. His privacy and confidentiality should be respected especially in writing the will. Geri should obtain informed consent to therapy, its nature and the anticipated course disclosed. Henderson & Barry (2012) note that respect for patient autonomy should be upheld as it is enshrined in the United States law.

Discussion II

The federal program inventory which was published by the United States Department of Health and Human Services in 2013 aimed at protecting the well-being of Americans by ensuring improved safety and health services (McManus & Schmidt, 2013). Many programs were established, but the discussion for this week will look at the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program that was established for Women, Infants, and Children. The program is under the State-Administered Benefit programs Agency. The program provides nutritional counseling, breastfeeding support and referral services to pregnant and breastfeeding women in addition to providing nutritious foods and immunization services to infants and children below five years in the United States.

The program serves all pregnant, postpartum and breastfeeding women, infants and children of age five and below who meets the eligibility criteria of being residents of the State to which they are applying, family income of below185 % as per the U.S Poverty Income Guidelines, have a nutritional risk which is proved by a health professional and individuals who participate in other benefit programs are also eligible. Women, infant and children state agencies administer the program to 1, 836 local agencies and 9,000 clinic sites. As a developmental psychologist, the program is appropriate for the target population because it helps vulnerable breastfeeding mothers and infants access support crucial for their psychological development. The program emphasizes on physical and cognitive domains of developmental psychology by ensuring that infants obtain nutritious food and emotional care that helps them achieve physical and mental growth.

The program hold professionalism and maintains ethical standards in executing its duties but some scholars have given their misgivings in the 30-minute nutritional education period as it is deemed too short to improving the nutritional status of participants (McManus & Schmidt, 2013). The program should be adjusted by increasing dietary educational time as this is fundamental to improving the health of breastfeeding mothers and infant children. The program is funded by two separate federal grants: food grant and the nutrition services and administration grant. Hoynes, Page, & Stevens (2014) assert that spending in this program is efficient but structures need to be adjusted to accommodate a greater number of eligible individuals.

 

 

 

References

Henderson, J., & Barry, G. (2014). End of life: Towards a World of Positive Development. Silver Spring, MD: Greenwood.

Hoynes, H., Page, M., & Stevens, H. (2014). Targeted Transfers to Improve Birth Outcomes: Evidence from Introduction to WIC Program. Journal of Public Health, 28, 53–67.

Isaac, N., & Knickman, H. (2013). The Concept and theory of human development: Historical and Contemporary Views. Journal of an end of life decisions, 12, 73–82.

McManus, M., & Schmidt, J. (2013). WIC reauthorization: Opportunities to improve the nutritional status of women infants and children. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.